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It’s been a while since I’ve post the first part of this series.

Considerations

I created a little tool, snap, which is more or less a combination of Tanel Poder’s snapper and a script from Tom Kyte. I used this for the first part to give me all the details of database process I was using. The next step is invoking Oracle’s Parallel Query feature. Parallel Query means multiple processing are working together to execute a query.

When measuring the session with snap, I only get the statistics of “my” database session, not the statistics of all the Parallel Query slaves which are working for me. This means I get too little details measuring only my own session. The only way I could think of to measure all relevant statistics in an easy way, is to gather the same statistics as my snap tool, but globally. (global means all processes and in all instances of the database) The result is gsnap; global snap. In my case, I am the only user in the database when doing anything, so the global stats are about my session, the parallel query slaves I have invoked and the background processes. If multiple sessions are working in the database, you cannot use gsnap statistics to determine what your session has done, because it’s unknown which session contributed to the statistics.

Another interesting thing came up during the investigation: when looking in the SQL area (v$sqlarea for example), the statistics with the SQL are the statistics of all the session involved (parallel query slaves) accumulated for that instance. While this sounds logical, it means that the elapsed time with the SQL is not the same as the elapsed time the requesting session experienced. To get the average(!) ‘real’ elapsed time, you need to divide the elapsed time by the number of PX slaves used. The number of slaves can be found using the ‘PX_SERVERS_EXECUTIONS’ column. To get the number slaves used per execution (on average, it’s accumulated), divide by ‘EXECUTIONS’. In case of RAC, the number of executions is only available in the instance in which the SQL is executed, the other instances report ‘0’.

In this part I investigate the execution of parallel query on a half rack exadata. This means 4 instances. When measuring the statistics with 4 instances, there is a lot of information. A real lot. For the sake of readability, I do not include all statistics, only the statistics I deem important or interesting.

Parallel query slave usage ‘spills’ to other instances in a RAC database at a certain point. When parallel is set to 2-16 the slaves remain local, when set to 17 all the instances are used. There are no other sessions in any of the instances. The parameter ‘PARALLEL_DEGREE_LIMIT’ is set to CPU. 16 is the number CPU threads on an Exadata V2 database node. (2 sockets, 8 core’s, 16 threads per database node)

In the first part, I have gotten a response time of 37 seconds. In fact, the table has changed a bit so it is different from the first post, but consider it roughly the same. (the same query now takes 33 seconds)

Parallel 16 – local node

As Kevin Closson points out in his comment, the query in the first part was CPU bound, and could be made faster if I could find extra CPU cycles or a faster CPU. Well, I am not going to change the hardware. But wait! I have 16 CPU threads, and the query only uses one. So the obvious next step is to use these threads. To do this, I am going to use Oracle’s Parallel Query functionality. This can be done in several ways, I choose to use the parallel hint in the SQL:

select /*+parallel(16)*/ count(*) from cg_var where sample_id=1;

Wow, the response time now is 13.32 seconds!

What is the result of this parallellisation?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                      | Name     | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |    TQ  |IN-OUT| PQ Distrib |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT               |          |       |       |   307K(100)|          |        |      |            |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE                |          |     1 |     3 |            |          |        |      |            |
|   2 |   PX COORDINATOR               |          |       |       |            |          |        |      |            |
|   3 |    PX SEND QC (RANDOM)         | :TQ10000 |     1 |     3 |            |          |  Q1,00 | P->S | QC (RAND)  |
|   4 |     SORT AGGREGATE             |          |     1 |     3 |            |          |  Q1,00 | PCWP |            |
|   5 |      PX BLOCK ITERATOR         |          |   399M|  1141M|   307K  (1)| 01:01:26 |  Q1,00 | PCWC |            |
|*  6 |       TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL| CG_VAR   |   399M|  1141M|   307K  (1)| 01:01:26 |  Q1,00 | PCWP |            |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                     

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

   6 - storage(:Z>=:Z AND :Z<=:Z)
       filter("SAMPLE_ID"=1)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Note
-----
   - Degree of Parallelism is 16 because of hint

How do the statistics look like?


i Stat Name				     Diff		     Diff/Sec
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1,STAT physical read total IO requests			   127,557		    7,645.497
1,STAT physical read total multi block requests 	   127,445		    7,638.784
1,STAT physical read requests optimized 			14			 .839
1,STAT physical read total bytes		   133,276,368,896	    7,988,304,014.076
1,STAT physical write total IO requests 			24			1.439
1,STAT physical write total bytes			   372,736		   22,341.008
1,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes	     4,678,771,904	      280,435,704.328
1,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for pred    133,275,516,928	    7,988,252,948.914
1,STAT cell physical IO bytes saved by storage		14,680,064		  879,892.025
1,STAT cell smart IO session cache lookups		       192		       11.508
1,STAT cell smart IO session cache hits 		       192		       11.508
1,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes retu      4,676,846,784	      280,320,316.702
1,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency		       447		       26.792
1,STAT table scans (short tables)				 1			 .060
1,STAT table scans (long tables)			       208		       12.467
1,STAT table scans (rowid ranges)			       208		       12.467
1,STAT table scans (direct read)			       208		       12.467
1,STAT table scan rows gotten			       391,553,915	       23,468,914.533
1,STAT table scan blocks gotten 			 3,995,742		  239,496.335
1,STAT cell scans					       208		       12.467
1,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer		16,270,709		  975,231.927
1,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer		16,270,709		  975,231.927
1,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer		16,267,256		  975,024.961
1,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimizatio 	16,270,709		  975,231.927
1,STAT cell simulated session smart scan effici    133,261,361,152	    7,987,404,481.604
1,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes		   133,261,361,152	    7,987,404,481.604
1,WAIT cell smart table scan				       185.188		       11.100
1,WAIT PX Idle Wait					       426.043		       25.536
1,WAIT PX Deq: Join ACK 					  .007			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq Credit: send blkd 				  .003			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq: Parse Reply					  .006			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq: Execute Reply					13.104			 .785
1,WAIT enq: CF - contention					  .000			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq: Signal ACK RSG					  .000			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq: Signal ACK EXT					  .011			 .001
1,WAIT PX Deq: reap credit					  .003			 .000
1,WAIT PX Nsq: PQ load info query				  .200			 .012
1,WAIT PX Deq: Slave Session Stats				  .053			 .003
1,WAIT enq: PS - contention					  .009			 .001
1,WAIT enq: TO - contention					  .000			 .000
1,TIME repeated bind elapsed time				  .000			 .000
1,TIME parse time elapsed					  .009			 .001
1,TIME background cpu time					  .037			 .002
1,TIME PL/SQL execution elapsed time				  .001			 .000
1,TIME DB CPU							22.180			1.329
1,TIME sql execute elapsed time 			       207.183		       12.418
1,TIME DB time						       207.355		       12.428
1,TIME background elapsed time					  .305			 .018

As I’ve stated above, the query response time was 13.32 seconds. Simplistic profile:

 

elapsed time                        : 207
CPU                                 :  22
wait / cell smart table scan        : 185

 

Apparently, I’ve spend 207 seconds of total elapsed time (foreground and PX slaves). 207/16=12.94 a little less than the response time. (13.32)
The profile shows that by enlarging the CPU capacity with PX, the bottleneck shifts, probably towards storage. Are we pushing the storage? Lets see: total amount processed 133,276,368,896, IO eliminated by storage indexes: 14,680,064, that leaves 133,261,688,832.
We got 7 storage servers, so divide by 7: 133,261,688,832/7=19,037,384,119 = average amount of IO done by every cell for this query. If we take 19,037,384,119 and divide that by the total time the query took (13.32); 19,037,384,119/13.32=1,429,233,042. So approximately 1.4GB per second per cell is physically read. I managed to get 1.5GB/s out of a cell during other tests, so we are near the maximum.

This would mean that if I enlarge the parallelism number further, which means multiple instances are used, the response time will not significantly decrease further. Well, let’s see:

Parallel 64 – the entire cluster

select /*+parallel(64)*/ count(*) from cg_var where sample_id=1;

The response time is 12.88 seconds.

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                      | Name     | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |    TQ  |IN-OUT| PQ Distrib |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT               |          |       |       | 76776 (100)|          |        |      |            |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE                |          |     1 |     3 |            |          |        |      |            |
|   2 |   PX COORDINATOR               |          |       |       |            |          |        |      |            |
|   3 |    PX SEND QC (RANDOM)         | :TQ10000 |     1 |     3 |            |          |  Q1,00 | P->S | QC (RAND)  |
|   4 |     SORT AGGREGATE             |          |     1 |     3 |            |          |  Q1,00 | PCWP |            |
|   5 |      PX BLOCK ITERATOR         |          |   399M|  1141M| 76776   (1)| 00:15:22 |  Q1,00 | PCWC |            |
|*  6 |       TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL| CG_VAR   |   399M|  1141M| 76776   (1)| 00:15:22 |  Q1,00 | PCWP |            |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                     

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

   6 - storage(:Z>=:Z AND :Z<=:Z)
       filter("SAMPLE_ID"=1)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Note
-----
   - Degree of Parallelism is 64 because of hint

 

Statistics:


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
i Stat Name				     Diff		     Diff/Sec
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1,STAT physical read total IO requests			    33,306		    1,977.687
1,STAT physical read total multi block requests 	    33,197		    1,971.214
1,STAT physical read requests optimized 			 3			 .178
1,STAT physical read total bytes		    34,602,745,856	    2,054,686,537.670
1,STAT physical write total IO requests 			14			 .831
1,STAT physical write total bytes			   240,640		   14,289.033
1,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes	     1,208,841,744	       71,780,166.462
1,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for pred     34,602,024,960	    2,054,643,731.376
1,STAT cell physical IO bytes saved by storage		 3,145,728		  186,791.100
1,STAT cell smart IO session cache lookups		       200		       11.876
1,STAT cell smart IO session cache hits 		       200		       11.876
1,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes retu      1,207,442,960	       71,697,107.658
1,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency		       450		       26.721
1,STAT table scans (short tables)				 1			 .059
1,STAT table scans (long tables)			       216		       12.826
1,STAT table scans (rowid ranges)			       216		       12.826
1,STAT table scans (direct read)			       216		       12.826
1,STAT table scan rows gotten			       101,106,534		6,003,634.369
1,STAT table scan blocks gotten 			 1,031,921		   61,274.738
1,STAT cell scans					       216		       12.826
1,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer		 4,223,803		  250,806.430
1,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer		 4,223,803		  250,806.430
1,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer		 4,223,503		  250,788.616
1,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimizatio 	 4,223,803		  250,806.430
1,STAT cell simulated session smart scan effici     34,598,936,576	    2,054,460,345.321
1,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes		    34,598,936,576	    2,054,460,345.321
1,WAIT cell smart table scan				       192.931		       11.456
1,WAIT library cache pin					  .006			 .000
1,WAIT library cache lock					  .002			 .000
1,WAIT library cache: mutex X					  .000			 .000
1,WAIT PX Idle Wait					       448.150		       26.611
1,WAIT PX Deq: Join ACK 					  .007			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq Credit: send blkd 				  .003			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq: Parse Reply					  .006			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq: Execute Reply					12.591			 .748
1,WAIT PX Deq: Execution Msg					 3.475			 .206
1,WAIT PX Deq: Signal ACK RSG					  .000			 .000
1,WAIT PX Deq: Signal ACK EXT					  .014			 .001
1,WAIT PX Deq: reap credit					  .016			 .001
1,WAIT PX Nsq: PQ load info query				  .200			 .012
1,WAIT PX Deq: Slave Session Stats				  .087			 .005
1,WAIT enq: PS - contention					  .024			 .001
1,WAIT enq: TO - contention					  .000			 .000
1,TIME repeated bind elapsed time				  .000			 .000
1,TIME parse time elapsed					  .013			 .001
1,TIME background cpu time					  .039			 .002
1,TIME PL/SQL execution elapsed time				  .001			 .000
1,TIME DB CPU							 6.539			 .388
1,TIME sql execute elapsed time 			       199.272		       11.833
1,TIME DB time						       199.499		       11.846
1,TIME background elapsed time					  .582			 .035
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
i Stat Name				     Diff		     Diff/Sec
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2,STAT physical read total IO requests			    31,750		    1,885.293
2,STAT physical read total multi block requests 	    31,666		    1,880.305
2,STAT physical read requests optimized 			10			 .594
2,STAT physical read total bytes		    32,994,410,496	    1,959,184,723.276
2,STAT physical write total IO requests 			12			 .713
2,STAT physical write total bytes			   196,608		   11,674.444
2,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes	     1,153,927,168	       68,519,377.838
2,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for pred     32,993,722,368	    1,959,143,862.723
2,STAT cell physical IO bytes saved by storage		10,485,760		  622,637.001
2,STAT cell smart IO session cache lookups		       190		       11.282
2,STAT cell smart IO session cache hits 		       190		       11.282
2,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes retu      1,152,649,216	       68,443,493.954
2,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency		       451		       26.780
2,STAT cell scans					       206		       12.232
2,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer		 4,026,750		  239,105.563
2,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer		 4,026,750		  239,105.563
2,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer		 4,026,283		  239,077.832
2,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimizatio 	 4,026,750		  239,105.563
2,STAT cell simulated session smart scan effici     32,983,310,336	    1,958,525,603.638
2,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes		    32,983,310,336	    1,958,525,603.638
2,WAIT cell smart table scan				       193.646		       11.499
2,WAIT library cache pin					  .006			 .000
2,WAIT library cache lock					  .006			 .000
2,WAIT library cache: mutex X					  .000			 .000
2,WAIT PX Idle Wait					       460.706		       27.356
2,WAIT PX Deq Credit: send blkd 				  .006			 .000
2,WAIT PX Deq: Execution Msg					 2.922			 .173
2,WAIT enq: CO - master slave det				  .001			 .000
2,WAIT PX Deq: reap credit					  .007			 .000
2,WAIT PX Deq: Slave Session Stats				  .114			 .007
2,WAIT enq: PS - contention					  .012			 .001
2,TIME repeated bind elapsed time				  .000			 .000
2,TIME parse time elapsed					  .020			 .001
2,TIME background cpu time					  .062			 .004
2,TIME DB CPU							 6.462			 .384
2,TIME sql execute elapsed time 			       199.424		       11.842
2,TIME DB time						       199.637		       11.854
2,TIME background elapsed time					  .282			 .017
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
i Stat Name				     Diff		     Diff/Sec
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3,STAT physical read total IO requests			    33,001		    1,959.576
3,STAT physical read total multi block requests 	    32,902		    1,953.697
3,STAT physical read requests optimized 			 1			 .059
3,STAT physical read total bytes		    34,282,340,352	    2,035,661,085.805
3,STAT physical write total IO requests 			12			 .713
3,STAT physical write total bytes			   196,608		   11,674.444
3,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes	     1,201,407,024	       71,338,698.054
3,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for pred     34,281,635,840	    2,035,619,252.381
3,STAT cell physical IO bytes saved by storage		 1,048,576		   62,263.700
3,STAT cell smart IO session cache lookups		       198		       11.757
3,STAT cell smart IO session cache hits 		       198		       11.757
3,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes retu      1,200,112,688	       71,261,841.300
3,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency		       451		       26.780
3,STAT cell scans					       214		       12.707
3,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer		 4,185,106		  248,508.630
3,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer		 4,185,106		  248,508.630
3,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer		 4,184,655		  248,481.850
3,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimizatio 	 4,185,106		  248,508.630
3,STAT cell simulated session smart scan effici     34,280,693,760	    2,035,563,312.338
3,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes		    34,280,693,760	    2,035,563,312.338
3,WAIT cell smart table scan				       193.330		       11.480
3,WAIT library cache pin					  .002			 .000
3,WAIT library cache lock					  .003			 .000
3,WAIT library cache: mutex X					  .000			 .000
3,WAIT PX Idle Wait					       456.274		       27.093
3,WAIT PX Deq Credit: send blkd 				  .005			 .000
3,WAIT PX Deq: Execution Msg					 3.006			 .179
3,WAIT enq: CO - master slave det				  .004			 .000
3,WAIT PX Deq: reap credit					  .007			 .000
3,WAIT PX Deq: Slave Session Stats				  .086			 .005
3,WAIT enq: PS - contention					  .009			 .001
3,TIME repeated bind elapsed time				  .000			 .000
3,TIME parse time elapsed					  .011			 .001
3,TIME background cpu time					  .038			 .002
3,TIME DB CPU							 7.078			 .420
3,TIME sql execute elapsed time 			       199.347		       11.837
3,TIME DB time						       199.570		       11.850
3,TIME background elapsed time					  .449			 .027
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
i Stat Name				     Diff		     Diff/Sec
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4,STAT physical read total IO requests			    30,213		    1,794.027
4,STAT physical read total multi block requests 	    30,129		    1,789.039
4,STAT physical read total bytes		    31,398,838,272	    1,864,440,774.857
4,STAT physical write total IO requests 			12			 .713
4,STAT physical write total bytes			   196,608		   11,674.444
4,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes	     1,118,129,280	       66,393,724.606
4,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for pred     31,398,133,760	    1,864,398,941.433
4,STAT cell smart IO session cache lookups		       180		       10.688
4,STAT cell smart IO session cache hits 		       180		       10.688
4,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes retu      1,116,834,944	       66,316,867.852
4,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency		       442		       26.246
4,STAT cell scans					       196		       11.638
4,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer		 3,833,202		  227,612.819
4,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer		 3,833,202		  227,612.819
4,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer		 3,832,789		  227,588.296
4,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimizatio 	 3,833,202		  227,612.819
4,STAT cell simulated session smart scan effici     31,398,207,488	    1,864,403,319.350
4,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes		    31,398,207,488	    1,864,403,319.350
4,WAIT cell smart table scan				       192.808		       11.449
4,WAIT library cache pin					  .007			 .000
4,WAIT library cache lock					  .002			 .000
4,WAIT library cache: mutex X					  .000			 .000
4,WAIT PX Idle Wait					       444.140		       26.373
4,WAIT PX Deq Credit: send blkd 				  .005			 .000
4,WAIT PX Deq: Execution Msg					 4.306			 .256
4,WAIT enq: CO - master slave det				  .004			 .000
4,WAIT PX Deq: reap credit					  .005			 .000
4,WAIT PX Deq: Slave Session Stats				  .082			 .005
4,WAIT enq: PS - contention					  .008			 .000
4,TIME repeated bind elapsed time				  .000			 .000
4,TIME parse time elapsed					  .019			 .001
4,TIME background cpu time					  .042			 .002
4,TIME DB CPU							 6.086			 .361
4,TIME sql execute elapsed time 			       198.045		       11.760
4,TIME DB time						       198.275		       11.773
4,TIME background elapsed time					  .538			 .032

Here we see the requests are spread over the available instances. Also, response time is only marginally lower (from 13.32 to 12.88), because the current limitation (physical disk access) hasn’t changed. The average amount of IO becomes:
Total amount of IO: 34,602,745,856+32,994,410,496+34,282,340,352+31,398,838,272=133,278,334,976
Storage index saved: 3,145,728+10,485,760+1,048,576+0=14,680,064
Amount of physical IO per cell: 133,263,654,912 (total amount with storage index IO saved substracted)/7/12.88=1,478,079,579 = 1.4GB/s, which is approximately the same as the previous SQL.

Let’s build the same profile (four times):

 

1- sql execute elapsed: 199, cpu time: 7, cell smart table scan: 193
2- sql execute elapsed: 199, cpu time: 6, cell smart table scan: 194
3- sql execute elapsed: 199, cpu time: 7, cell smart table scan: 193
4- sql execute elapsed: 198, cpu time: 6, cell smart table scan: 193

 

As expected: we are totally IO bound.

Can we push this further? Yes! Stay tuned for part 3!

This is an investigation into an half rack database machine (the half rack database machine at VX Company). It’s an exadata/database V2, which means SUN hardware and database and cell (storage) software version 11.2.

I build a table (called ‘CG_VAR’), which consists of:
– bytes: 50787188736 (47.30 GB)
– extents: 6194
– blocks: 6199608

The table doesn’t have a primary key, nor any other constraints, nor any indexes. (of course this is not a real life situation)

No exadata optimisation

At first I disabled the Oracle storage optimisation using the session parameter ‘CELL_OFFLOAD_PROCESSING':
alter session set cell_offload_processing=false;

Then executed: select count(*) from cg_var where sample_id=1;
The value ‘1’ in the table ‘CG_VAR’ accounts for roughly 25%.

Execution plan:

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2301354116
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                  | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time    |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT           |        |     1 |     3 |  1692K  (1)| 05:38:34 |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE            |        |     1 |     3 |            |    |
|*  2 |   TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL| CG_VAR |   395M|  1131M|  1692K  (1)| 05:38:34 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------
   2 - filter("SAMPLE_ID"=1)

Statistics:

592,STAT opened cursors cumulative                                                     1
592,STAT user calls                                                                    3
592,STAT session logical reads                                                   6178215
592,STAT CPU used when call started                                                15398
592,STAT CPU used by this session                                                  15398
592,STAT DB time                                                                   30667
592,STAT user I/O wait time                                                        15397
592,STAT non-idle wait time                                                        15424
592,STAT non-idle wait count                                                       96193
592,STAT session uga memory                                                      2105504
592,STAT session uga memory max                                                   982320
592,STAT session pga memory                                                      1572864
592,STAT session pga memory max                                                  1572864
592,STAT enqueue waits                                                                 3
592,STAT enqueue requests                                                              2
592,STAT enqueue conversions                                                           3
592,STAT enqueue releases                                                              2
592,STAT global enqueue gets sync                                                      5
592,STAT global enqueue releases                                                       2
592,STAT physical read total IO requests                                           48448
592,STAT physical read total multi block requests                                  48446
592,STAT physical read requests optimized                                              2
592,STAT physical read total bytes                                           50610774016
592,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes                                 50610774016
592,STAT ges messages sent                                                             4
592,STAT consistent gets                                                         6178215
592,STAT consistent gets from cache                                                  142
592,STAT consistent gets from cache (fastpath)                                       142
592,STAT consistent gets direct                                                  6178073
592,STAT physical reads                                                          6178073
592,STAT physical reads direct                                                   6178073
592,STAT physical read IO requests                                                 48448
592,STAT physical read bytes                                                 50610774016
592,STAT calls to kcmgcs                                                             142
592,STAT calls to get snapshot scn: kcmgss                                             1
592,STAT file io wait time                                                         17477
592,STAT Number of read IOs issued                                                 48448
592,STAT no work - consistent read gets                                          6178073
592,STAT table scans (long tables)                                                     1
592,STAT table scans (direct read)                                                     1
592,STAT table scan rows gotten                                               1596587000
592,STAT table scan blocks gotten                                                6178073
592,STAT session cursor cache hits                                                     1
592,STAT session cursor cache count                                                    1
592,STAT parse count (total)                                                           1
592,STAT execute count                                                                 1
592,STAT bytes sent via SQL*Net to client                                            528
592,STAT bytes received via SQL*Net from client                                       11
592,STAT SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client                                             2
592,STAT cell flash cache read hits                                                    2
592,WAIT enq: KO - fast object checkpoint                                            621
592,WAIT direct path read                                                      153970472
592,WAIT SQL*Net message to client                                                     3
592,WAIT SQL*Net message from client                                          1782253728
592,WAIT kfk: async disk IO                                                       264299
592,WAIT events in waitclass Other                                                  2236
592,TIME parse time elapsed                                                           20
592,TIME DB CPU                                                                153981591
592,TIME sql execute elapsed time                                              306726075
592,TIME DB time                                                               306726219

The executionplan is different with the operation ‘TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL’. This means the database is aware the segment is on cell/exadata storage.

We see here the SQL took 306,726,095 microseconds (306.726 seconds; time: parse time+sql execute elapsed time) for scanning 47.30 GB (!!), of which roughly half the time (153.970 seconds) was taken by the wait ‘direct path read’. The I/O wait-time is also in the statistic ‘user I/O wait time': 15397.

I’ve executed the SQL before; there is no hard parse in the ‘time section’, there’s also no ‘parse count (hard)’ in the statistics section.

I’ve done 48448 IO requests (‘physical read total IO requests’), of which almost all IO’s (48446) where multiblock requests (‘physical read total multi block requests’). This means the average IO wait time is: 153,970,472/48,448 = 3,178 which is 3ms!

Using exadata optimisation, without storage indexes

In order to enable exadata optimisation, I reverted the session parameter ‘CELL_OFFLOAD_PROCESSING’ to ‘TRUE’.

One of the optimisation techniques of exadata is called ‘storage index’. A storage index is a list kept in the memory of the cellservers which keeps track of minimum and maximum values of fields per chunk of 1 MB (called ‘storage region’). Storage indexes are build automatically during usage of the ‘storage region’. A way to flush the storage index is to restart the cell servers. (Warning! Do not do this in a production environment!)

Execution plan:

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2301354116
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                  | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time    |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT           |        |     1 |     3 |  1692K  (1)| 05:38:34 |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE            |        |     1 |     3 |            |    |
|*  2 |   TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL| CG_VAR |   395M|  1131M|  1692K  (1)| 05:38:34 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------
   2 - storage("SAMPLE_ID"=1)
       filter("SAMPLE_ID"=1)

Statistics:

592,STAT opened cursors cumulative                                                     1
592,STAT user calls                                                                    3
592,STAT session logical reads                                                   6178215
592,STAT CPU used when call started                                                 3707
592,STAT CPU used by this session                                                   3707
592,STAT DB time                                                                    3856
592,STAT user I/O wait time                                                          156
592,STAT non-idle wait time                                                          156
592,STAT non-idle wait count                                                        2437
592,STAT session uga memory                                                     24054408
592,STAT session uga memory max                                                 21948904
592,STAT session pga memory                                                     25755648
592,STAT session pga memory max                                                 23527424
592,STAT enqueue waits                                                                 3
592,STAT enqueue requests                                                              2
592,STAT enqueue conversions                                                           3
592,STAT enqueue releases                                                              2
592,STAT global enqueue gets sync                                                      5
592,STAT global enqueue releases                                                       2
592,STAT physical read total IO requests                                           53714
592,STAT physical read total multi block requests                                  52661
592,STAT physical read total bytes                                           50610774016
592,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes                                  5575531904
592,STAT ges messages sent                                                             4
592,STAT consistent gets                                                         6178215
592,STAT consistent gets from cache                                                  142
592,STAT consistent gets from cache (fastpath)                                       142
592,STAT consistent gets direct                                                  6178073
592,STAT physical reads                                                          6178073
592,STAT physical reads direct                                                   6178073
592,STAT physical read IO requests                                                 53714
592,STAT physical read bytes                                                 50610774016
592,STAT calls to kcmgcs                                                             142
592,STAT calls to get snapshot scn: kcmgss                                             1
592,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for predicate offload               50610774016
592,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes returned by smart scan           5575531904
592,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency                                            9
592,STAT table scans (long tables)                                                     1
592,STAT table scans (direct read)                                                     1
592,STAT table scan rows gotten                                                387130468
592,STAT table scan blocks gotten                                                1503621
592,STAT cell scans                                                                    1
592,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer                                    6549118
592,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer                                      6549118
592,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer                                     6183339
592,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimization                               6549118
592,STAT cell simulated session smart scan efficiency                        50653913088
592,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes                                          50653913088
592,STAT session cursor cache count                                                    1
592,STAT parse count (total)                                                           1
592,STAT execute count                                                                 1
592,STAT bytes sent via SQL*Net to client                                            528
592,STAT bytes received via SQL*Net from client                                      327
592,STAT SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client                                             2
592,WAIT enq: KO - fast object checkpoint                                            492
592,WAIT cell smart table scan                                                   1560351
592,WAIT SQL*Net message to client                                                     3
592,WAIT SQL*Net message from client                                             5605106
592,WAIT events in waitclass Other                                                  1590
592,TIME parse time elapsed                                                           46
592,TIME DB CPU                                                                 37064365
592,TIME sql execute elapsed time                                               38571803
592,TIME DB time                                                                38571968

The execution plan shows the ‘TABLE ACCESS STORAGE FULL’ again, to indicate cell storage, but now it was able to offload, which is visible in the predicate information section with the predicate ‘storage(“SAMPLE_ID”=1)’. Let’s see the differences:

NR ,TYP Statistic                                                                  1st           2nd          Diff
592,STAT opened cursors cumulative                                                     1              1              0
592,STAT user calls                                                                    3              3              0
592,STAT session logical reads                                                   6178215        6178215              0
592,STAT CPU used when call started                                                15398           3707         -11691
592,STAT CPU used by this session                                                  15398           3707         -11691
592,STAT DB time                                                                   30667           3856         -26811
592,STAT user I/O wait time                                                        15397            156         -15241
592,STAT non-idle wait time                                                        15424            156         -15268
592,STAT non-idle wait count                                                       96193           2437         -93756
592,STAT session uga memory                                                      2105504       24054408       21948904
592,STAT session uga memory max                                                   982320       21948904       20966584
592,STAT session pga memory                                                      1572864       25755648       24182784
592,STAT session pga memory max                                                  1572864       23527424       21954560
592,STAT enqueue waits                                                                 3              3              0
592,STAT enqueue requests                                                              2              2              0
592,STAT enqueue conversions                                                           3              3              0
592,STAT enqueue releases                                                              2              2              0
592,STAT global enqueue gets sync                                                      5              5              0
592,STAT global enqueue releases                                                       2              2              0
592,STAT physical read total IO requests                                           48448          53714           5266
592,STAT physical read total multi block requests                                  48446          52661           4215
592,STAT physical read requests optimized                                              2              0             -2
592,STAT physical read total bytes                                           50610774016    50610774016              0
592,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes                                 50610774016     5575531904   -45035242112
592,STAT ges messages sent                                                             4              4              0
592,STAT consistent gets                                                         6178215        6178215              0
592,STAT consistent gets from cache                                                  142            142              0
592,STAT consistent gets from cache (fastpath)                                       142            142              0
592,STAT consistent gets direct                                                  6178073        6178073              0
592,STAT physical reads                                                          6178073        6178073              0
592,STAT physical reads direct                                                   6178073        6178073              0
592,STAT physical read IO requests                                                 48448          53714           5266
592,STAT physical read bytes                                                 50610774016    50610774016              0
592,STAT calls to kcmgcs                                                             142            142              0
592,STAT calls to get snapshot scn: kcmgss                                             1              1              0
592,STAT file io wait time                                                         17477              0         -17477
592,STAT Number of read IOs issued                                                 48448              0         -48448
592,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for predicate offload                         0    50610774016    50610774016
592,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes returned by smart scan                    0     5575531904     5575531904
592,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency                                            0              9              9
592,STAT no work - consistent read gets                                          6178073              0       -6178073
592,STAT table scans (long tables)                                                     1              1              0
592,STAT table scans (direct read)                                                     1              1              0
592,STAT table scan rows gotten                                               1596587000      387130468    -1209456532
592,STAT table scan blocks gotten                                                6178073        1503621       -4674452
592,STAT cell scans                                                                    0              1              1
592,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer                                          0        6549118        6549118
592,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer                                            0        6549118        6549118
592,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer                                           0        6183339        6183339
592,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimization                                     0        6549118        6549118
592,STAT cell simulated session smart scan efficiency                                  0    50653913088    50653913088
592,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes                                                    0    50653913088    50653913088
592,STAT session cursor cache hits                                                     1              0             -1
592,STAT session cursor cache count                                                    1              1              0
592,STAT parse count (total)                                                           1              1              0
592,STAT execute count                                                                 1              1              0
592,STAT bytes sent via SQL*Net to client                                            528            528              0
592,STAT bytes received via SQL*Net from client                                       11            327            316
592,STAT SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client                                             2              2              0
592,STAT cell flash cache read hits                                                    2              0             -2
592,WAIT enq: KO - fast object checkpoint                                            621            492           -129
592,WAIT direct path read                                                      153970472              0     -153970472
592,WAIT cell smart table scan                                                         0        1560351        1560351
592,WAIT SQL*Net message to client                                                     3              3              0
592,WAIT SQL*Net message from client                                          1782253728        5605106    -1776648622
592,WAIT kfk: async disk IO                                                       264299              0        -264299
592,WAIT events in waitclass Other                                                  2236           1590           -646
592,TIME parse time elapsed                                                           20             46             26
592,TIME DB CPU                                                                153981591       37064365     -116917226
592,TIME sql execute elapsed time                                              306726075       38571803     -268154272
592,TIME DB time                                                               306726219       38571968     -268154251

Let start at the time spend: the first run, this was: 306726075+20= 307 seconds, the second run took: 38571803+46= 39 seconds (!!). That is a reduction of 87%. That _is_ spectacular!

The waits have changed: the ‘direct path read’ is swapped for ‘cell smart table scan’.

In the (session) statistics also have some things to notice:

  • physical read total bytes: Is the same(!) It’s not strange: the size of the segment to read is known by the database, and must be read entirely from the database’s perspective.
  • cell physical IO bytes eligible for predicate offload: this statistic shows the amount of data which the cell server is able to process on behalf of the database, instead of the database processing and the cell server just delivering blocks. In this case, all bytes are processed on the cellserver (cell physical IO bytes eligible for predicate offload=physical read total bytes)
  • cell physical IO interconnect bytes: Here we see that the amount of data traffic between the database and the cell servers. Because of the offload, the amount is reduced immensely (50,610,774,016 versus 5,575,531,904) which is a reduction of 88.9% (!!)
  • cell physical IO interconnect bytes returned by smart scan: This is the amount of data which is caused by the cell smart scan (the statistic name is quite self explaining). If we compare this statistic with ‘cell physical IO interconnect bytes’, we see all data on the interconnect was caused by the smart scan.
  • cell scans: the number of scans offloaded to cellservers. one in this case.
Using exadata optimisation, with storage indexes

Upon the next execution of this statement, the execution plan stays the same, but the cellservers built the storage index.

Let’s see a comparison of the statistics of the previous run (without a storage index in place) with a second run, which will use the storage index, which is built up during the first run:

NR ,TYP Statistic                                                                  1st           2nd          Diff
592,STAT opened cursors cumulative                                                     1              1              0
592,STAT user calls                                                                    3              3              0
592,STAT session logical reads                                                   6178215        6178215              0
592,STAT CPU used when call started                                                 3707           3713              6
592,STAT CPU used by this session                                                   3707           3713              6
592,STAT DB time                                                                    3856           3745           -111
592,STAT user I/O wait time                                                          156             37           -119
592,STAT non-idle wait time                                                          156             37           -119
592,STAT non-idle wait count                                                        2437           1825           -612
592,STAT session uga memory                                                     24054408              0      -24054408
592,STAT session uga memory max                                                 21948904              0      -21948904
592,STAT session pga memory                                                     25755648              0      -25755648
592,STAT session pga memory max                                                 23527424              0      -23527424
592,STAT enqueue waits                                                                 3              3              0
592,STAT enqueue requests                                                              2              2              0
592,STAT enqueue conversions                                                           3              3              0
592,STAT enqueue releases                                                              2              2              0
592,STAT global enqueue gets sync                                                      5              5              0
592,STAT global enqueue releases                                                       2              2              0
592,STAT physical read total IO requests                                           53714          53765             51
592,STAT physical read total multi block requests                                  52661          52688             27
592,STAT physical read requests optimized                                              0          35423          35423
592,STAT physical read total bytes                                           50610774016    50610774016              0
592,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes                                  5575531904     5570438336       -5093568
592,STAT ges messages sent                                                             4              4              0
592,STAT consistent gets                                                         6178215        6178215              0
592,STAT consistent gets from cache                                                  142            142              0
592,STAT consistent gets from cache (fastpath)                                       142            142              0
592,STAT consistent gets direct                                                  6178073        6178073              0
592,STAT physical reads                                                          6178073        6178073              0
592,STAT physical reads direct                                                   6178073        6178073              0
592,STAT physical read IO requests                                                 53714          53765             51
592,STAT physical read bytes                                                 50610774016    50610774016              0
592,STAT calls to kcmgcs                                                             142            142              0
592,STAT calls to get snapshot scn: kcmgss                                             1              1              0
592,STAT cell physical IO bytes eligible for predicate offload               50610774016    50610774016              0
592,STAT cell physical IO bytes saved by storage index                                 0    37006434304    37006434304
592,STAT cell physical IO interconnect bytes returned by smart scan           5575531904     5570438336       -5093568
592,STAT cell session smart scan efficiency                                            9              0             -9
592,STAT table scans (long tables)                                                     1              1              0
592,STAT table scans (direct read)                                                     1              1              0
592,STAT table scan rows gotten                                                387130468      387130468              0
592,STAT table scan blocks gotten                                                1503621        1503621              0
592,STAT cell scans                                                                    1              1              0
592,STAT cell blocks processed by cache layer                                    6549118        2025039       -4524079
592,STAT cell blocks processed by txn layer                                      6549118        2025039       -4524079
592,STAT cell blocks processed by data layer                                     6183339        1666003       -4517336
592,STAT cell blocks helped by minscn optimization                               6549118        2025039       -4524079
592,STAT cell simulated session smart scan efficiency                        50653913088    13647896576   -37006016512
592,STAT cell IO uncompressed bytes                                          50653913088    13647896576   -37006016512
592,STAT session cursor cache hits                                                     0              1              1
592,STAT session cursor cache count                                                    1             1            0
592,STAT parse count (total)                                                           1              1              0
592,STAT execute count                                                                 1              1              0
592,STAT bytes sent via SQL*Net to client                                            528            528              0
592,STAT bytes received via SQL*Net from client                                      327            327              0
592,STAT SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client                                             2              2              0
592,WAIT enq: KO - fast object checkpoint                                            492            790            298
592,WAIT cell smart table scan                                                   1560351         366466       -1193885
592,WAIT SQL*Net message to client                                                     3              2             -1
592,WAIT SQL*Net message from client                                             5605106        8163815        2558709
592,WAIT events in waitclass Other                                                  1590           1723            133
592,TIME parse time elapsed                                                           46             23            -23
592,TIME DB CPU                                                                 37064365       37131355          66990
592,TIME sql execute elapsed time                                               38571803       37456254       -1115549
592,TIME DB time                                                                38571968       37457846       -1114122

We see here the storage index reduced an enormous amount of I/O on the cells (cell physical IO bytes saved by storage index: 37006434304), but didn’t result in a enormous reduction of execution time (38.5 seconds versus 37.4 seconds).

This isn’t too unexpected:
1/without exadata optimisation: total time: 307 s, IO wait (direct path read): 154 s.
2/with exadata optimisation: total time: 39 s, IO wait (cell smart table scan): 2 s.

I think you get the point now: after IO waits are brought down to 2 seconds, any further optimisation on IO (which is what the storage indexes are) only will reduce the 2 seconds further. And it did! The optimisation of the storage indexes is again spectacular, only has little impact on overall response time, because it influences a too little part of it (in fact, that is Amdahl’s law):

3/with exadata optimisation and storage indexes: total time: 37 s, IO wait (cell smart table scan): 0.3 s.

Conclusion

This is only an investigation in some very specific things of Exadata. There is much more to explore.

Using the hardware in the database machine, a single process can read 47.30 GB in 154 seconds. That is a very decent number, and sustainable with multiple processes, alias Oracle Parallel Query. That on it self is something of which many shops can benefit from. But, it gets really interesting when using the exadata optimisations. In this case, the total response time dropped from 307 to 37 seconds, with barely a wait on I/O (0.3 seconds for 47.30 GB!!)

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