This article is written with examples taken from an (virtualised) Oracle Linux 6u6 X86_64 operating system, and Oracle database version 18.104.22.168.1. However, I think the same behaviour is true for Oracle 11 and 10 and earlier versions.
Probably most readers of this blog are aware that a “map” of mapped memory for a process exists for every process in /proc, in a pseudo file called “maps”. If I want to look at my current process’ mappings, I can simply issue:
$ cat /proc/self/maps
00400000-0040b000 r-xp 00000000 fc:00 786125 /bin/cat
0060a000-0060b000 rw-p 0000a000 fc:00 786125 /bin/cat
0060b000-0060c000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
0080a000-0080b000 rw-p 0000a000 fc:00 786125 /bin/cat
01243000-01264000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
345b000000-345b020000 r-xp 00000000 fc:00 276143 /lib64/ld-2.12.so
345b21f000-345b220000 r--p 0001f000 fc:00 276143 /lib64/ld-2.12.so
345b220000-345b221000 rw-p 00020000 fc:00 276143 /lib64/ld-2.12.so
345b221000-345b222000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
345b800000-345b98a000 r-xp 00000000 fc:00 276144 /lib64/libc-2.12.so
345b98a000-345bb8a000 ---p 0018a000 fc:00 276144 /lib64/libc-2.12.so
345bb8a000-345bb8e000 r--p 0018a000 fc:00 276144 /lib64/libc-2.12.so
345bb8e000-345bb8f000 rw-p 0018e000 fc:00 276144 /lib64/libc-2.12.so
345bb8f000-345bb94000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7f8f69686000-7f8f6f517000 r--p 00000000 fc:00 396081 /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
7f8f6f517000-7f8f6f51a000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7f8f6f524000-7f8f6f525000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7fff2b5a5000-7fff2b5c6000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack]
7fff2b5fe000-7fff2b600000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]
ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vsyscall]
What we see, is the start and end address, the rights (rwx), absence of rights is shown with a ‘-‘, and an indication of the mapped memory region is (p)rivate or (s)hared. In this example, there are no shared memory regions. Then an offset of the mapped file, then the device (major and minor device number). In our case sometimes this is ‘fc:00’. If you wonder what device this might be:
$ echo "ibase=16; FC" | bc
$ ls -l /dev | egrep 252,\ *0
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 252, 0 Mar 23 14:19 dm-0
$ sudo dmsetup info /dev/dm-0
Read Ahead: 256
Tables present: LIVE
Open count: 1
Event number: 0
Major, minor: 252, 0
Number of targets: 2
So, this is a logical volume lv_root (in the volume group vg_oggdest).
Then the inode number (if a file was mapped, if anonymous memory was mapped the number 0 is shown), and then the path if a file was mapped. This is empty for anonymous mapped memory (which is memory which is added to a process using the mmap() call). Please mind there are also special regions like: [heap],[stack],[vdso] and [vsyscall].
Okay, so far I’ve shown there is a pseudo file called ‘maps’ which shows mapped memory and told a bit about the fields in the file. Now let’s move on to the actual topic of this blog: the Oracle database SGA memory, and the indicator this is deleted!
In this example I pick the maps file of the PMON process of an Oracle database. Of course the database must use system V shared memory, not shared memory in /dev/shm (which is typically what you see when Oracle’s automatic memory (AMM) feature is used). This is a snippet from the maps file of the pmon process on my server:
00400000-1093f000 r-xp 00000000 fc:00 1326518 /u01/app/oracle/product/22.214.171.124/dbhome_1/bin/oracle
10b3e000-10dbf000 rw-p 1053e000 fc:00 1326518 /u01/app/oracle/product/126.96.36.199/dbhome_1/bin/oracle
10dbf000-10df0000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
12844000-1289d000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
60000000-60001000 r--s 00000000 00:04 111902723 /SYSV00000000 (deleted)
60001000-602cc000 rw-s 00001000 00:04 111902723 /SYSV00000000 (deleted)
60400000-96400000 rw-s 00000000 00:04 111935492 /SYSV00000000 (deleted)
96400000-9e934000 rw-s 00000000 00:04 111968261 /SYSV00000000 (deleted)
9ec00000-9ec05000 rw-s 00000000 00:04 112001030 /SYSV6ce0e164 (deleted)
345b000000-345b020000 r-xp 00000000 fc:00 276143 /lib64/ld-2.12.so
345b21f000-345b220000 r--p 0001f000 fc:00 276143 /lib64/ld-2.12.so
If you look closely, you see the oracle executable first, with two entries, one being readonly (r-xp), the other being read-write (rw-p). The first entry is readonly because it is shared with other processes, which means that there is no need for all the processes to load the Oracle database executable in memory, it shares the executable with other process. There’s much to say about that too, which should be done in another blogpost.
After the executable there are two anonymous memory mappings, of which one is the process’ heap memory.
Then we see what this blogpost is about: there are 5 mappings which are shared (r–s and rw-s). These are the shared memory regions of the Oracle database SGA. What is very odd, is that at the end of the lines it says “(deleted)”.
Of course we all know what “deleted” means. But what does it mean in this context? Did somebody delete the memory segments? Which actually can be done with the ‘ipcrm’ command…
If you go look at the maps of other Oracle processes and other databases you will see that every database’s shared memory segment are indicated as ‘(deleted)’.
Word of warning: only execute the steps below on a test environment, do NOT do this in a production situation.
In order to understand this, the best way to see what actually is happening, is starting up the Oracle database with a process which is traced with the ‘strace’ utility with the ‘-f’ option set (follow). Together with the ‘-o’ option this will produce a (long) file with all the system calls and the arguments of the calls which happened during startup:
$ strace -f -o /tmp/oracle_startup.txt sqlplus / as sysdba
Now start up the database. Depending on your system you will notice the instance startup takes longer. This is because for every system call, strace needs to write a line in the file /tmp/oracle_start.txt. Because of this setup, stop the database as soon as it has started, on order to stop the tracing from crippling the database performance.
Now open the resulting trace file (/tmp/oracle_startup.txt) and filter it for the system calls that are relevant (calls with ‘shm’ in their name):
$ grep shm /tmp/oracle_startup.txt | less
Scroll through the output until you see a line alike ‘shmget(IPC_PRIVATE, 4096, 0600) = 130777091’:
4545 shmget(IPC_PRIVATE, 4096, 0600) = 130777091
4545 shmat(130777091, 0, 0) = ?
4545 shmctl(130777091, IPC_STAT, 0x7fff9eb9da30) = 0
4545 shmdt(0x7f406f2ba000) = 0
4545 shmctl(130777091, IPC_RMID, 0) = 0
4545 shmget(IPC_PRIVATE, 4096, 0600) = 130809859
4545 shmat(130809859, 0, 0) = ?
4545 shmctl(130809859, IPC_STAT, 0x7fff9eb9da30) = 0
4545 shmdt(0x7f406f2ba000) = 0
4545 shmctl(130809859, IPC_RMID, 0) = 0
What we see here is a (filtered) sequence of systems calls that could explain the status deleted of the shared memory segments. If you look up what process id is in front of these shm system calls, you will see it’s the foreground process starting up the instance. If you look closely, you’ll that there is a sequence which is repeated often:
1. shmget(IPC_PRIVATE, 4096, 0600) = 130777091
The system call shmget allocates a shared memory segment of 4 kilobyte, rights set to 600. The return value is the shared memory identifier of the requested shared memory segment.
2. shmat(130777091, 0, 0) = ?
The system call shmat attaches the a shared memory segment to the process’ address space. The first argument is the shared memory identifier, the second argument is the address to attach the segment to. If the argument is zero, like in the call above, it means the operating system is tasked with finding a suitable (non used) address. The third argument is for flags, the value zero here means no flags are used. The returncode (here indicated with a question mark) is the address at which the segment is attached. This being a question mark means strace is not able to read the address, which is a shame, because we can’t be 100% certain at which memory address this shared memory segment is mapped.
3. shmctl(130777091, IPC_STAT, 0x7fff9eb9da30) = 0
The system call shmctl with the argument IPC_STAT has the function to read the (kernel) shared memory information of the shared memory identifier indicated by the first argument, and write it at the memory location in the third argument in a struct called shmid_ds.
4. shmdt(0x7f406f2ba000) = 0
With this system call, the shared memory segment is detached from the process’ address space. For the sake of the investigation, I assumed that the address in this call is the address which is returned by the shmat() call earlier.
5. shmctl(130777091, IPC_RMID, 0) = 0
This is another shared memory control system call, concerning our just created shared memory segment (shared memory identifier 130777091), with the command ‘IPC_RMID’. This is what the manpage says about IPC_RMID:
IPC_RMID Mark the segment to be destroyed. The segment will only actually be destroyed
after the last process detaches it (i.e., when the shm_nattch member of the asso-
ciated structure shmid_ds is zero). The caller must be the owner or creator, or
be privileged. If a segment has been marked for destruction, then the (non-stan-
dard) SHM_DEST flag of the shm_perm.mode field in the associated data structure
retrieved by IPC_STAT will be set.
What I thought this means was:
It looked like to me the database instance starts building up its shared memory segments per 4096 page. Because IPC_RMID only marks the segment to be destroyed, and because it will only be truly destroyed when there are no processes attached to the shared memory segment, it looked like to me the background processes were pointed to the shared memory segment which was marked destroyed (in some way I hadn’t discovered yet), which meant the shared memory segment would actually survive and all database processes can use it. If ALL the database processes would be killed for any reason, for example with a shutdown abort, the processes would stop being connected to the shared memory segment, which would mean the shared memory segment would vanish automatically, because it was marked for destruction.
Sounds compelling, right?
Well…I was wrong! The sequence of creating and destroying small shared memory segments is done, but it turns out these are truly destroyed with the shmctl(…,IPC_RMID,…) call. I don’t know why the sequence of creating shared memory segments is happening.
I started looking for the actual calls that create the final, usable shared memory segments in the /tmp/oracle_startup.txt file. This is actually quite easy to do; first look up the shared memory segment identifiers using the sysresv utility (make sure the database’s ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID are set):
...a lot of other output...
Oracle Instance alive for sid "dest"
Actually the ‘sysresv’ utility (system remove system V memory I think is what the name means) has the task of removing memory segments if there is no instance left to use them. It will not remove the memory segments if it finds the instance alive. It prints out a lot of information as a bonus.
Now that we got the shared memory identifiers, simply search in the trace file generated by strace, and search for the creation of the memory segment with the identifiers: (please mind searching with ‘less’ is done with the forward slash)
$ less /tmp/oracle_startup.txt
9492 shmget(IPC_PRIVATE, 905969664, IPC_CREAT|IPC_EXCL|0640) = 197394436
9492 shmat(197394436, 0x60400000, 0) = ?
9492 times(NULL) = 430497743
9492 write(4, " Shared memory segment allocated"..., 109) = 109
9492 write(4, "\n", 1) = 1
Aha! here we see shmget() again, but now with a size (905969664) that looks much more like a real shared memory segment size used by the database! After the shared memory identifier is created, the process attaches it to its addressing space with shmat() to a specific memory address: 0x60400000.
The next thing to do, is to look for any shmctl() call for this identifier. Oracle could still do the trick of marking the segment for destruction…
…But…there are no shmctl() calls for this identifier, nor for any of the other identifiers shown with the sysresv utility. This is rather odd, because Linux shows them as “(deleted)”. There ARE dozens of shmat() calls, of the other (background) processes forked from the starting process when they attach to the shared memory segments.
So, conclusion at this point is Linux shows the shared memory segments as deleted in ‘maps’, but the Oracle database does not mark the segments for destruction after creation. This means that either Linux is lying, or something mysterious is happening in the Oracle executable which I didn’t discover yet.
I could only think of one way to verify what is truly happening here. That is to create a program myself that uses shared memory, so I have 100% full control over what is happening, and can control every distinct step.
This is what I came up with:
int main ()
struct shmid_ds shmbuffer;
const int shared_segment_size = 0x6400;
/* Allocate a shared memory segment. */
segment_id = shmget (IPC_PRIVATE, shared_segment_size,
IPC_CREAT | IPC_EXCL | S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
printf ("1.shmget done\n");
/* Attach the shared memory segment. */
shared_memory = (char*) shmat (segment_id, 0, 0);
printf ("shared memory attached at address %p\n", shared_memory);
printf ("2.shmat done\n");
/* Determine the segment's size. */
shmctl (segment_id, IPC_STAT, &shmbuffer);
segment_size = shmbuffer.shm_segsz;
printf ("segment size: %d\n", segment_size);
printf ("3.shmctl done\n");
/* Write a string to the shared memory segment. */
sprintf (shared_memory, "Hello, world.");
/* Detach the shared memory segment. */
printf ("4.shmdt done\n");
/* Deallocate the shared memory segment. */
shmctl (segment_id, IPC_RMID, 0);
printf ("5.shmctl ipc_rmid done\n");
(I took the code from this site, and modified it a bit for my purposes)
If you’ve got a linux system which is setup with the preinstall rpm, you should be able to copy this in a file on your (TEST!) linux database server, in let’s say ‘shm.c’, and compile it using ‘cc shm.c -o smh’. This will create an executable ‘shm’ from this c file.
This program does more or less the same sequence we saw earlier:
1. Create a shared memory identifier.
2. Attach to the shared memory identifier.
3. Get information on the shared memory segment in a shmid_ds struct.
4. Detach the shared memory segment.
5. Destroy it using shmctl(IPC_RMID).
What I did was have two terminals open, one to run the shm program, and one to look for the results of the steps.
Step 1. (shmget)
1. shmget done
When looking with ipcs, you can see the shared memory segment which is created because of the shmget() call:
$ ipcs -m
------ Shared Memory Segments --------
0x00000000 451608583 oracle 600 25600 0
when looking in the address space of the process running the shm program, the shared memory segment is not found. This is exactly what I expect, because it’s only created, not attached yet.
Step 2. (shmat)
shared memory attached at address 0x7f3c4aa6e000
Of course the shared memory segment is still visible with ipcs:
0x00000000 451608583 oracle 600 25600 1
And we can see from ipcs in the last column (‘1’) that one process attached to the segment. Of course exactly what we suspected.
But now that we attached the shared memory to the addressing space, it should be visible in maps:
7f3c4aa6e000-7f3c4aa75000 rw-s 00000000 00:04 451608583 /SYSV00000000 (deleted)
Bingo! The shared memory segment is visible, as it should be, because we just attached it with shmat(). But look: it’s deleted already according to Linux!
However I am pretty sure, as in 100% sure, that I did not do any attempts to mark the shared memory segment destroyed or do anything else to make it appear to be deleted. So, this means maps lies to us.
So, the conclusion is the shared memory Oracle uses is not deleted, it’s something that Linux shows us, and is wrong. When looking at the maps output again, we can see the shared memory identifier is put at the place of the inode number. This is handy, because it allows you to take the identifier, and look with ipcs for shared memory segments and understand which specific shared memory segment a process is using. It probably means that maps tries to look up the identifier number as inode number, which it will not be able to find, and then comes to the conclusion that it’s deleted.
However, this is speculation. Anyone with more or better insight is welcome to react on this article.