Tag Archives: ansible-playbook

This is a short blogpost meant as both an introduction for those who don’t know Ara and a guide on how to install Ara.
Ara means ‘Ansible Runtime Analysis’, and is a tool for storing metadata that Ansible uses during execution. It is very valuable, because it takes a lot of guesswork and entering debug statements in your playbook away.

This is a guide on how to install Ara on Oracle Linux 7. I assume ansible is already installed. If want to start fresh, add EPEL and yum install ansible and git. That’s all you need to begin!

First, become root and install ara using a playbook:

mkdir ansible
cd $_
mkdir roles
git clone roles/ara
echo "- hosts: localhost
  - ara" > install_ara.yml
ansible-playbook install_ara.yml
useradd ansible
systemctl stop ara

Ara and a systemd unit (service) is created and started by the playbook. I create an ‘ansible’ user and stop the service. The ansible ara role creates a service running as root, I don’t like running daemons as root if it’s not necessary.

The next part is executed as the user that is supposed to run ansible, which I created above:

echo "[defaults]
local_tmp = /home/ansible/.ansible/tmp
callback_plugins = /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/ara/plugins/callbacks
dir = /home/ansible/.ara " > ~/.ansible.cfg

What this does, is define the callback for ara so executions are recorded. The default way of recording is entering the details in a sqlite3 database. This database (which is a file) is stored in /home/ansible/.ara, which is defined in the [ara] section using ‘dir’.

The next part is executed as root again:

pip install --upgrade ara
echo "[Unit]

ExecStart=/bin/ara-manage runserver -h -p 9191

[Install]" > /etc/systemd/system/ara.service
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start ara

This first executes pip (which is installed by the playbook above) and does an upgrade of ara and it’s depended packages. If this is not done, the website run by ara-manage will throw a 500 internal error (!!). Then the echo overwrites the current ara webserver config run as root by a modified version that runs it as ansible. Next we inform systemd it needs to reload the config, and then we start the ara service again.

Now run an ansible playbook as the ansible user, and go to port 9191 with your browser. It will detail the entire run, and list all the plays and tasks, with all information! For the CLI die-hards, there is a CLI tool ‘ara’ which provides the same information as the website, but entirely text based. It can generate static html files for sending through though.

If you don’t want to record everything, remove or comment the callback_plugins setting in ~/.ansible.cfg. Uncomment or add back if you want to record again. You can quite simply purge the history by stopping the ara service and remove the ~/.ara/ansible.sqlite file. Ara has an option to use mysql or postgresql instead of sqlite.

The CLI provides easy access to the results once you figured out how to use it. This is an example:
First list all the playbook run (I ran one playbook):

$ ara playbook list
| ID                                   | Path                           | Time Start          | Duration | Complete | Ansible Version |
| a152d1e5-fdab-4f50-b84a-de2d0b336124 | /home/ansible/ansible/test.yml | 2017-05-11 16:57:25 | 0:00:00  | True     |         |

Then show the tasks in this playbook:

$ ara task list -b a152d1e5-fdab-4f50-b84a-de2d0b336124
| ID                                   | Name            | Path | Line | Action  | Time Start          | Duration |
| bf0bbc33-b0a4-4ac3-8242-58f5c8f1c4e5 | Gathering Facts | None | None | setup   | 2017-05-11 16:57:25 | 0:00:00  |
| 2b952b48-611f-424d-ba06-b94e22e87b1c | command         | None | 3    | command | 2017-05-11 16:57:26 | 0:00:00  |

Once you got the task IDs, you can list the task results:

$ ara result list --task 2b952b48-611f-424d-ba06-b94e22e87b1c
| ID                                   | Host      | Action  | Status  | Ignore Errors | Time Start          | Duration |
| d9278719-209e-41f8-8ecc-4ad2681dcdf6 | localhost | command | changed | False         | 2017-05-11 16:57:26 | 0:00:00  |

And then show the result in long format:

$ ara result show d9278719-209e-41f8-8ecc-4ad2681dcdf6 --long
| Field         | Value                                       |
| ID            | d9278719-209e-41f8-8ecc-4ad2681dcdf6        |
| Playbook ID   | a152d1e5-fdab-4f50-b84a-de2d0b336124        |
| Playbook Path | /home/ansible/ansible/test.yml              |
| Play ID       | 683dbe2b-84cc-4e17-b2ec-9b013e7d7612        |
| Play Name     | localhost                                   |
| Task ID       | 2b952b48-611f-424d-ba06-b94e22e87b1c        |
| Task Name     | command                                     |
| Host          | localhost                                   |
| Action        | command                                     |
| Status        | changed                                     |
| Ignore Errors | False                                       |
| Time Start    | 2017-05-11 16:57:26                         |
| Time End      | 2017-05-11 16:57:26                         |
| Duration      | 0:00:00                                     |
| Result        | {                                           |
|               |     "changed": true,                        |
|               |     "cmd": "echo \"test\"",                 |
|               |     "delta": "0:00:00.002718",              |
|               |     "end": "2017-05-11 16:57:26.616876",    |
|               |     "rc": 0,                                |
|               |     "start": "2017-05-11 16:57:26.614158",  |
|               |     "stderr": "",                           |
|               |     "stderr_lines": [],                     |
|               |     "stdout": "test",                       |
|               |     "stdout_lines": [                       |
|               |         "test"                              |
|               |     ]                                       |
|               | }                                           |

This is how to install ara on OSX:

sudo pip install ara --user

Not sure if I need to use sudo when installing with ‘–user’, I ended up with directories in my local user Library directory for use with python that were not readable to my user ‘frits.hoogland’. In order to correct that, I ran:

sudo chown -R frits.hoogland Library 

Now fetch the ara directory in the python site-packages directory:

python -c "import os,ara; print(os.path.dirname(ara.__file__))"

Now create a ansible config file to be able to active the ara callback for running ansible-playbook and point the ara server to the sqlite database:

echo "[defaults]
local_tmp = /Users/frits.hoogland/.ansible/tmp
callback_plugins = /Users/frits.hoogland/Library/Python/2.7/lib/python/site-packages/ara/plugins/callbacks
dir = /Users/frits.hoogland/.ara" > .ansible.cfg

At this moment the ara callback is activated. If you don’t want the overhead of ara writing all information to the sqlite database, comment ‘callback_plugins’.

If you want to use the ara webserver, active it using:

nohup ara-manage runserver -h localhost -p 9191 &

If you want to deactivate the ara webserver, stop it using:

pkill -f ara-manage

This blogpost is about how to install the semaphore user-interface for running ansible. Ansible is an automation language for automating IT infrastructures. It consists of command-line executables (ansible, ansible-playbook for example) that can run a single task using a module (using the ansible executable), or can run multiple tasks using multiple modules in order to perform more complex setup requirements (using the ansible-playbook executable). The downside of running IT tasks via the command-line is that there is no logging by default, unless someone decides to save the standard out to a file, which, if multiple people start doing that by hand will probably lead to a huge collection of text files which are hard to navigate. Also, when tasks are run via a common place, it’s an all or nothing situation: everybody has access to all the scripts, or to nothing.

This is where semaphore comes in: semaphore is a web-based user interface for running Ansible playbooks, for which you can define users, grant users access to certain templates (groups of playbooks, inventories (=groups of hosts) and ssh keys), which they can run, for which the output is saved in a database.

Semaphore is an alternative to Ansible Tower, which is a non-free product from RedHat. Semaphore is an open source project under active development, and is relatively “young”, which means it can (still) have “sharp edges”. Also Ansible Tower has more functionality.

An other feature from semaphore (and tower for that matter), is that any manipulation done via the web interface can also be done via a REST API. This means that if you use another language or product for the planning and/or deployment of (virtual, cloud, etc) machines which can do REST calls, or if you can craft REST calls with it, you can hand over the management of running Ansible for provisioning to a machine or a group of machines to semaphore, so tracking and logging of running Ansible is taken care of.

However, I did find the documentation of how to install semaphore in a real-life usable way not as verbose as I would like it. For that reason, I decided to write it down in this blogpost. Actually, most of the tasks are done using an Ansible playbook, so the installation is quite simple.

I am using a machine running Centos 7.3, I think this instruction is usable on any version of enterprise linux 7.

1. Install EPEL
EPEL has additional packages to the packages in the distribution repositories.

# rpm -i

2. Install Ansible and git

# yum install -y ansible git

Git is necessary for being able to clone from a git repository, and ansible is necessary to run a playbook. The playbook will actually update git to version 2.x because that is stated as a requirement on the semaphore repository.

3. Clone install_semaphore repository

# git clone 

You might want to change the admin_(username|email|desc|password), which are the credentials for the semaphore superuser in the install_semaphore.yml file. If you like you can change the mysql credentials, however I do think the default settings are okay, because the mysql database will be hidden behind the firewall.

4. Run the semaphore install playbook from the repository

# ansible-playbook install_semaphore/install_semaphore.yml

Please mind this requires root to be allowed to sudo to any user.


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