If you are administering an Oracle Exadata database machine, which base operating system image (the operating system version with which it system came) is Linux and version 22.214.171.124.0 (current version is viewable with the command ‘imageinfo’, which needs root account privileges) or higher, and multiple users are accessing the system with password authentication, this blogpost might be an interesting read. Also, if you have witnessed temporary lockout of the oracle user, or other users: this blogpost describes the reason and a potential resolution.
I administer several Exadata database machines, which are not all delivered at the same time, so the base image version is different. Because I also administer the Linux operating system on the computing nodes in the Exadata database machines, I noticed the Linux settings slightly differ among the different Exadata database machine computing nodes. There is a positive side to this: apparently the team that maintains the base image does not only renew the packages on the image, but also get feedback about the settings, and change things to improve something. There is also a negative side to this: these changes are not documented anywhere (that I am aware of), so getting a new system always is a bit exciting, because things might have been changed. Or not…
I speak about ‘base image’ deliberately. After a system is delivered with a certain ‘base image’ (collection of kernel, executables, os-scripts and settings), the kernel, executables and os-scripts are renewed with an upgrade, but the settings remain the same. This blogpost is about a PAM (pluggable authentication modules) setting, which I encountered on base-image 126.96.36.199.0.
I witnessed the ‘oracle’ account being locked out temporarily on a system. The reason was a series of unsuccesful logon attempts. This could be something which complies with somebodies security standards (but who’s?). I think the ‘oracle’ account on an Oracle database system being locked out (albeit temporarily) is highly undesirable on most systems. As I’ve described earlier: this is a setting which the Exadata image engineering team decided to do with pluggable authentication modules.
In the directory /etc/pam.d there are two files which configure the temporary lockout when a series of unsuccesful logon attempts have been made: ‘login’ and ‘sshd’. The actual line responsible for the lockout is:
auth required pam_tally2.so deny=5 onerr=fail lock_time=600
In most environments where no actual security compliancy rules are known, I disable this behaviour by commenting it with a hash (‘#’) sign as the first character on the line. Of course you could read the manpage of pam_tally2 (search on the internet for ‘man pam_tally2’) and configure it to your linking or to comply with your security rules.